Calling all closet goths, old/new wavers, tough guys and bomb gang girls! Here is a tribute mix I made of arguably one of the greatest labels of all time, Wax Trax! Records (Chicago). (www.waxtrax.com)
Wax Trax! is among the pantheon of select Chicago labels (I would include Chess Records, Trax Records, Touch & Go, etc.) that did more than simply put out records, they created a sound. Charting unknown territory in dance, punk, new wave and alternative rock they created something much more interesting than the some of their parts. “Industrial” yes but, in retrospect and especially listening back to this mix, it just seems to narrow a definition: proto-techno, proto-idm? Simply put, they released some of the hardest dance music you could find then, in the mid 80s to early 90s. Its no coincidence that many techno and house producers (e.g. Carl Craig, Jeff Mills, etc) have noted Wax Trax! or their roster as a big influence. So, what more can be said about Wax Trax that hasn’t been said or probably won’t be covered in the upcoming documentary, Industrial Accident, The Story Of Wax Trax Records? I guess my own personal take here with the music itself. As a collector and a fan I was buying Wax Trax! Records as soon as I started buying records. So, this mix is a labour of love years in the making: an ALL VINYL to tribute to WAX TRAX!
The Best Of Wax Trax! On Wax – a label tribute mix by Dougie Boom
PTP – Rubber Glove Seduction T.G.T. – Revo (The Continuum MIx) Front 242 – Take One Clock DVA – Sound Mirror KMFDM – Godlike (12” Mix) My Life With The Thrill Kill Kult – Devil Does Drugs Ministry – Everyday Is Halloween Acid Horse – No Name, No Slogan 1000 Homo DJs – Supernaut Laibach – Geburt Einer Nation Foetus – Butterfly Potion Lead Into Gold – Faster Than Light Front Line Assembly – Digital Tension Front 242 – Headhunter V1.0 Ajax – Mind The Gap My Life With The Thrill Kill Kult – Kooler Than Jesus Greater Than One – I Don’t Need God Front 242 – Welcome To Paradise Meat Beat Manifesto – God O.D Coil – The Snow (Answers Come In Dreams II) The KLF – What Time Is Love (12” Version) M.E.S.H. – Meet Every Situation Headon Fini Tribe – I Want More (Row, Row, Row The Mix) Revolting Cocks – Attack Ships On Fire Ministry – Primental T.A.G.C. – Broadcast Test (Transmission 1) Front Line Assembly – Iceolate A Split Second – Flesh Jass – Theme (Dub) Greater Than One – Utopia AA Revolting Cocks – Stainless Steel Providers
Late last year QSC revealed a new series of speaker, the “CP” series, which touted the same QSC signature sound we would expect, in a more affordable and lighter incarnation. Now, plenty was written in anticipation but not many reviews have surfaced out there. Particularly, for my intended purpose, which is how does it perform as a speaker monitor for DJing (for mobile set ups) and maybe as a secondary solution to a full rig?
Now, I should not have to explain why a speaker monitor for djing is important, but I find I have to all the time (lol) to: wedding planners, restaurant owners, brides and grooms, my girlfriend, sound-techs, and even other DJs (I thought we were in this together). The answer is simple: DJ’s need to hear what is going on, more than anyone else in the room in order to perform. It is not unlike any other type of musician/performer. Timing, volume, pitch, tempo are all factors that are important to DJs or at least should be. Digital djing is definitely more forgiving in that respect, you can almost dj with your eyes now but ultimately we need to hear what we are doing, no interpretation. That is why any DJ mixer worth its salt has at least one “booth out” output. Now, there are some cases, as a dj, where you are positioned close enough to a speaker where you are, more or less, hearing it the same way your audience is. More often, however, you may not be near a speaker, it may be positioned away from you or perhaps you are isolated from your audience almost altogether. I remember playing a early gig with kQuattro (1/2 of the duo was Egyptrixx, now ACT!) and Crystal Castles (RIP) and I was playing in a closet (pretty much) before the kitchen with the speakers and audience in another room. Every time someone would come out of the kitchen I would get hit with the swinging door: how am I sounding? In a more recent example, I played the Design Exchange in downtown Toronto. Huge space! However, the audio vendor would not provide stage monitors. We are talking $100,000+ worth of equipment, but fair enough. Furthermore, the reality is DJs are often an afterthought to establishments. Their makeshift booths don’t consider the things that DJs need, including an adequate amount of space and a speaker close enough to hear what you are doing. In some cases, you may need to hear the music louder than your audience does to get the mix right, for example in a restaurant or playing a wedding reception.
So, having a monitor for djing is invaluable. Personally, I kept holding out for a 8″ to 10″ speaker that was lightweight and could wedge (perfect for the urban DJ to jump in your car service with). You would be surprised how little options there are. For example, the Yamaha DBR10 and Yamaha DXR8 which sound great, albeit a more flatter response, do not set up as a wedge, otherwise they would have been a contender. The JBL EON610 is kind of ugly, if you want to use as a secondary p.a., and JBLs sound (in my experience) is just ok: loud but can get brash (convince me otherwise in comments). There is of course the QSC K8, which is not a bad option but because it is discontinued you may have to go secondhand (i.e. no warranty for an expensive item). Its newer replacement the K8.2 are a good option, but they are for some a rather expensive indulgence for the main purpose of a dj monitor at almost double the cost of the CP8s. However, even in a city as “world class” as Toronto, being able to hear them in the flesh is tough, no floor models anywhere. So, I decided to take the plunge so you don’t have to.
It is of small stature and width but has a good weight to it. That is, enough weight to feel substantial but an easy pick up. There is no side handle but a top handle. Although it should be relatively easy to take on an off a speaker pole. The hard plastic (Polypropylene) outer shell feels nice and solid. When you hear “plastic” you fear the worst but it feels solid, hopefully it withstands the test of time and doesn’t scratch easily. It is the perfect size for a booth speaker where space is often limited. Being able to set up 5 ways is nice: vertically on a tabletop; horizontally flat on one side or as a wedge on the other; on a speaker pole (35mm); or they have a yoke / wallmount to install it. For the audio we have 3 inputs: two (x2) mic / line inputs; one (x1) 3.5mm input for a mp3 player and one (x1) xlr output to link the signal (post gain) to additional speakers. That is enough inputs to do smaller demo size setups or perhaps for weddings, small ceremony or reception. Is it enough power though?
The QSC C9 boasts a 1000 Watt Class D Amplifier the same as its larger version the CP12. It does not have full control of the eq rather it has six (x6) different EQ presets. On first power up I would say it definitely met my expectations and surpassed them! This thing is loud with good clarity! As a monitor, placed facing towards me, I put the CP8’s volume at 8 o’clock (2 clicks) and 9 o’clock (2 clicks) on my booth output from the Pioneer S9 and it was comfortable room listening and it only went up from there.
As far as the eq setting I preferred the default setting. I got really good clarity (highs, mid, lows) testing a vinyl record. The more I turned it up, in the confines of my small studio, the more it scared me how loud it got (hello neighbours). The dance setting added more bass but I felt it was a little bit muddled (your audience will probably not know). However, I don’t really see that as its purpose, as full p.a. solution. I think this is best suited as a monitor; an additional speaker for filling up a room; or as tops with the addition of a sub (there are eq settings to accommodate a sub). However, if your client is on a budge maybe 2 of these in a small setting would be adequate.
As a speaker wedge, it performed well. It has a 90 degrees of sound dispersion, which makes it ideal for this use. I had this placed maybe a foot away from me and could hear it no problem. The speaker was more or less pointing at my lower torso but could still hear it. I would say ideally at around 2-3 feet it would be pointing directly at your ear.
So, thus far really happy with the purchase. I am going to record a mix using it and I have weddings lined up where it will be used and tested in different live setting so I will post updates.
A more affordable QSC speaker that does not sacrifice sound.
Compact design that will fit most dj booths.
Has a 90 degrees of sound dispersion, which makes it ideal for a wedge by your feet. Even at a foot away I could hear what I was doing.
Loud enough for small crowds.
Warranty is only 3 years compared to their usual 6 for other speakers. *Be sure to register online to qualify, otherwise its only 1 year.
Recording your vinyl records (lps, 12″s, 45s) to digital files can be a costly, precarious, time consuming task, where the results can often be underwhelming. I am by no means an audiophile, but a dj who has collected thousands of records over the years, and I know enough that the better it sounds, the better it is for djing and listening. Now that digital djing has become so much apart of what I do, I still long for digital copies of those records in my collection that are unavailable elsewhere or, in some cases, they are not decent rips (Youtube rips, illegal sites, 128kb rips of yesteryear). So, my review is going to be looking at what many of the other reviewers of the Sony PS-HX500 don’t cover, while focusing on the Sony PS-HX500’s ripping capabilities (not its phono stage or sound replication in a stereo set up, maybe for a latter post). I am going to be asking:
How do “natural” recordings from the Sony PS-HX500 sound?
Does the Sony PS-HX500 rip club records well?
Is the Sony PS-HX500 kind to scratchy records?
Does the Sony PS-HX500 rip 45s / 7″ records well?
How does the Sony PS-HX500 compare to my current dj set up for ripping records?
How do “natural” recordings from the Sony PS-HX500 sound?
I found many of the other reviews focused on the Rock and Jazz LPs, which because they have that nuance of live instruments seems like a reasonable first approach. For that, I decided to begin with a reissue Alice Coltrane – “Journey In Satchidananda”. Not only does it have live instrumentation but the harp is a very vibrant instrument with sweeping highs and mids (probably hard to capture digitally I figure). For rock I used another reissue, here Black Sabbath’s Self titled debut.
The results across the board were excellent for the recordings. Alice’s harp rings through with great clarity, the double bass bumps, Cymbals glisten. You could here the room reverberation that they were playing. Black Sabbath sounded great. The rainy intro of did expose a little surface crackle in my copy but as soon as the thunder kicks in it sounded great. The instruments (bass, guitar, vocals & drums) were allowed to play their respective roles and were easily accessible.
2. Does the Sony PS-HX500 rip club records well?
In contrast, with the more “natural” sounds of microphoned instruments, I wanted to compare it with more modern recordings with some bump, ie some “club” records. For this example I used Jay-Z’s – “Vol. 3… Life And Times Of S. Carter” . The results In comparison to a digital copy I had, “Big Pimpin'” sounded remarkably close, taking in consideration the limitations of a 33 1/3 record with 3 songs on the one side. The recording had good low-end with the kicks coming through as they should without detracting from the vocals. The vocals coasted on top with good clarity. The stereo spectrum was a bit more narrow but I think that has more to do with the medium itself more than a fault with the turntable.
3. Is the Sony PS-HX500 kind to scratchy records?
For my scratchy record (which could also arguably double as another “club” record) I used a Dance Mania test of DJ Chip – “Ghettoslide” . The condition of the vinyl is probably VG with lots of scratches. It was well loved soldier of the clubs, hence the wrong sleeve. Furthermore, Dance Mania records are NOT world renown because of their quality pressings and I can’t imagine their white labels faired better. However, the results of the recordings made on the Sony PS-HX500 were relatively kind. Surface noise from the scratches were heard but ultimately the music came through with good balance (lows, mids & highs). One thing that was remarkable, the vocals although manically stacked,were more discernible. I could here all the nasty words clearly. With a little bit of post-production finesse you could definitely get a good usable digital file I think. Something like the Izotope RX7 editor software (which I will do a review of shortly).
4. Does the Sony PS-HX500 rip 45s / 7″ records well?
I am a 45 fanatic. In fact my lp/12″ collecting has more or less subsided. Whereas I still have to look when I see some 45s. However, 45s are more often then not the greatest fidelity. When you dj them they often need a lot of eq to get them right. But needless to say I still wanted to be able to rip those impossible to find cuts. So I tried various 45s of varying condition: High Rollers – “Place Your Bets” a Canadian disco cut; Fuji – “Revalations” a psych blues funk cut; Errol Scorcher – “Roach In De Corner” a Jamaican pressing (not exactly a quality pressing or condition); Bobby Marchan – “Rockin’ Pneumonia” a rock n roll romp.
Across the board really good results. A little tininess you would expect from a 45 and little crackle. But really good clarity, and good lows particularly from the “Roach In De Corner”
5. How does the Sony PS-HX500 compare to my current dj set up for ripping records?
Compared to my other set ups (and many djs will have the same equipment): a Technics 1200, various carts (Shure N44-7, Jico N44-7, Ortofon S-120), various mixers (Pioneer S9, Rane TTM-57sl and Roland DJ-505 controller) using the Serato software (Scratch Live & Serato DJ), the recordings of the same records didn’t even compare, I would say 40% better or more. Every single time the Sony PS-HX500 out did these set ups. The clarity was not only apparent to my ears but when I load the files in Serato (without any tinkering), you didn’t get these “all one colour” waveforms, like with Serato’s all red waveform vinyl rips. Suggesting a wider spectrum of sound. The only thing I think would be required to make excellent “ready for the club” rips, would be an ounce of preparation (clean your records) and a bit of post production (gain, eq). The gain on the Sony recordings were really low, but this could be seen as a positive in the sense that you can add more and it give you ample wiggle room to do so.
I would highly recommend the Sony PS-HX500 as a usb turntable for ripping records. I got really good results that surpassed all the other popular DJ set ups I had . I think I will definitely change the cart it came with (something that I will cover in another review) to hopefully yield even better results. The cartridge it comes with is supposedly an unmarked $50 Audio-technica cart and needle. Because of this I am ripping my really scratchy records first before purchasing another cartridge. The cartridges are not easily swappable and needs to be installed with a bit of finesse and wired.
All in one belt-drive turntable with phono stage & usb that doesn’t actually suck.
Good price and value
Recordings are excellent and are kind to all genres.
33/45 switch on top means no belt adjustment required to play at different speeds.
Comes with recording software that is easy to use, available here.
Records 16/24 bit .wav files but can also record using Sony’s propriety DSD format.
the stock needle it comes with is just ok.
Needle replacement may be difficult (I will find out later)
No height adjustment for the arm means only particular carts of a certain height will work.
Legs are not adjustable,
Arm is not automatic (I am going to look to see if an automatic lift can be installed).
For the best results you will probably need a better audio software editor to do a little bit of post tinkering, but there are free ones (e.g. Audacity).
For many the Technics SL-1200 is synonymous with djing. What made it so appealing to djs was its rock-solid build, allowing it to be dragged out to block parties, installed at clubs; and its pitch control making it possible to mix records together with precision. Not to mention that its direct drive technology allowed for scratching and manipulation of the record. However, for a long period the Technics SL-1200 model was discontinued making it a much coveted (& heavily sold) item on the secondhand market. However, I digress though, because this not a history lesson. What we want to discuss is what does the Technics 1200 mean now with its new incarnation the Technics SL-1200MK7?
I first heard about the news from buddies Skratch Bastid & Pat Drastik (Thugli), both having previewed and contributed input into this new design. Both DJs are insanely good in their own right, so it makes me think that Panasonic (who own Technics) have the best of intentions in mind for djs and the new features included seem to confirm this: detachable rca’s and ac power, as featured on the rival turntables like the Pioneer; 2x speed button allowing you to double the pitch to +16 / -16. As usual though, there are detractors, people already don’t like that its digital pitching instead of analog pitch; that the classic 1200 torque will not be the same; and most confusingly, that people won’t see it in the club because it is the black model and not the silver model.
However, what most are really concerned about is (always) the price point, something Technics is being candid about. A previous boutique model introduced in 2016 came out at a laughable $4000 US. If its not competitively priced with other models like the Pioneer DJ PLX-1000, I think it will not be considered by most as a viable option . They will either get second-hand 1200s, and since they are practically indestructible and Technics has sold 3.5 million historically they can be found. Or most will go to a competitor or instead choose an entirely different path.
Its true, that for many years there was no competition in the analog dj turntable market but ultimately music and djing is about expression. With the advent of dj controllers and midi controllers, I wonder if this generation will find it too limited and this is coming from someone who loves both digital and analog djing (still have my 1200s MK2’s). Its true things like doubling the pitch and allowing reverse play (another new feature) can allow for more expression but is it enough, when other turntable style controllers like the Rane Twelve have midi buttons for cueing or whatever (its midi)? I understand, however, purists would probably see the addition of buttons as a blight on the 1200s. Ultimately, Technics is calling the bluff on those who have longed to have new 1200s. Will those who have always wanted Technics 1200s and those who have older models splurge for this new model remains to be seen and heard.
Update: the Technics 1200 will be coincidentally priced at $1200 US dollars. Which makes me think there is definitely something psychological about making things a little too expensive (I see you Apple & Pioneer). It is meant to set it apart from other companies. Usually, the outcome is that the company wins and people will splurge. However, I personally would have this way down on my list, since I already own MK2’s. Its true the addition of detachable (replaceable) rca and power is compelling, particularly for being mobile. Businesses, such as bars, restaurants and clubs, should definitely take note however. If you are in the business of having DJs play, who use turntables, this could definitely be what you need: A hopefully more easily maintainable, industry standard turntable with a warranty.
This past summer I made my first foray into buying a DJ controller. I know its a crazy world: the same year Shure discontinues their needles, including the much loved N44-7, Dougie buys his first controller: these are crazy dj times. After a year of researching, I eventually settled on the Roland DJ-505 from their Aira series of Serato controllers (DJ-808, DJ-505 and the smaller DJ-202). This series of controllers are, coincidentally, Roland’s first foray into making a dj controller.
Why did I choose the Roland DJ-505?
I settled on it, primarily, because of its much toted low-latency platters and its sound card. For the most part it is the same layout and price point as your Pioneer DDJ-SR2. The Roland also comes with a free Serato Tool Kit license (which includes Serato Pitch ‘n Time DJ, Serato Flip, and all Serato DJ FX packs) for free. Which I hadn’t purchased yet, so that was a plus. But its most distinct feature, which makes it stand apart from most controllers, is the addition of the TR-S drum machine (Roland style step-sequencer/drum machine) on top. When I first saw it last year, to be honest, I thought it was a bit gimmicky. Do I really need an addition of a drum machine? Will it sound monotonous, repetitious or worse shoes in a dryer when I combine the drum machine with the songs from Serato? And to be honest, my initial impressions have been really good. As long as your grids are lined up you can get some really good results. The drum machine features the sounds from Roland’s classic TR-707, 808, or 909 sounds or you can even use your own samples. But what really sold me was the inclusion of a midi out that send midi clock tempo (e.g. send midi out to a 303, Volca, MPC…).
Track Freeze Problem (THE BAD)
My first impressions were good….until a couple months into it. While using my DJ-505 with Serato DJ at home, I started getting this reoccurring error. This anomaly usually happened while I was manipulating the left platter (sometimes the right) and sometimes in conjunction with performance pads / play button. The track would “freeze” in Serato. By freeze, I mean the play button in Serato would be engaged (blue / active) but the track would not play. Even on the controller the play button would be engaged (green) but the track itself would not advance. You could hit the cue points or pads and it would respond normally: it would go to the cue point, you would hear the sound and could even hold them down to make the track play normally. But as soon as you release the button it would stop. You could switch to another channel (e.g. 1 to 3) but inevitably the same problem would occur on those channels as well, until both/all channels were stuck. The time frame for such an occurrence could happen from two minutes to three hours into djing.
The only thing you could do to remedy the situation is to turn off the DJ-505 and turn it back on, which would take about 25 seconds. However, 25 seconds of silence might as well be an hour when you are djing to a crowd. When the music or sound stops at an event, it feels like the air is sucked out of the room. There will be booing, there will be chanting: “turn it on!” Because of this I have been hooking up my laptop’s phone jack to an external mixer. In case it happens I can segue to something on iTunes. Not a perfect work around, believe me, but the only one I can think of. The only other precaution you can take is to limit the use of the platter altogether, however, a controller you cannot touch is a bit ridiculous.
So, after a bit of research I found out it was not an isolated incidentwith many owners complaining about this problem with not only the DJ-505, but the 202s and the DJ-808 as well. So, with warranty in hand, I contacted Roland (Canada) and currently, my unit is in the Roland shop being fixed for a SECOND time. The repairs people at Roland have been courteous and helpful. Its not their fault that Roland released this half-baked “concept”. But I am beginning to lose faith.
UPDATE: After having received my DJ-505 back (twice) it appears to be working, I haven’t experienced any “freezing” as of yet. My evaluation of the DJ-505 is mixed. I highly enjoying using the DJ-505 features. Its light weight, platter response, soundcard, drum machine and midi output are all desirable features and a lot of fun to use. My recommendation, if you buy one make sure you hold your receipt tightly for warranty, in case you got a bad one. This defect (which I assume is due to the platter contacts) affects some of the units. What percentage is unclear.
Roland DJ-505 Review
Great soundcard (for Serato) for an under $1000 CAD.
Low-latency platter (very responsive *when it works)
Midi Out (clock)
Comes with free Serato Tool Kit license
Some units have a defect, that freezes Serato tracks.
Phono inputs do not sound good (might not be ideal for the centre of your set up)
Some tracking problems with certain needles when used with a turntable
After a couple days of erasing duplicates tracks in Itunes on my maxed-out MacBook Pro (Retina, 13-inch, Late 2013), I started getting a weird anomaly. The tracks were gone but the space that should have been freed up wasn’t there. I was alerted to this when my OS kept warning me I was running out of space. But how could this be if I was erasing files? I tried the obvious and restarted the computer hoping it would eventually correct itself, but it essentially started crippling my computer as it became sluggish for lack of space. Rather than keep erasing mp3s I decided to back my library (and anything else of importance) and take my laptop to Carbon Computing on Queen St. in Toronto to get them to do a fresh install. Since, I was in the market for a new DJ controller, I figured why not upgrade to an OS that could fulfill my Serato Scratch Live and Serato Dj needs (which was Yosemite). The result of installing a new OS on my computer, it shed a 100 gigs of space on my hard drive. I am realizing this is sounding like a weight loss commercial but really though! The task I set out to do, which was more or less to free up my space to add a new OS, more or less happened backwards. So, I didn’t get to go through my entire library, but ultimately fate decided for me: its better to go through an edit your library as it happens than sit down and try to do the whole thing at once. Its a daunting almost impossible task to achieve if you have an extensive mp3 library. What is more, better quality version of songs come along all the time, so you are better off just erasing duplicates as you see them.
As part of of my ongoing blog posts regarding iTunes editing/cleaning from a dj’s perspective but could also useful to anybody who has extensive collection.
Once I knew I wanted to clean up my library and update my OS, my next question was:
Should I edited my library first before I update the OS or just add everything back after the OS and edit my collection later?
If things are time sensitive, ie you are burning to have that piece of gear or if you think editing your library may take forever, then you may want to move everything and edit your library. I decided it would better to go through my library first, clean house and then back it up and re-add everything after the OS update. In my mind, if I was going to go through the trouble of adding back my library, I was going to avoid adding back useless files after the update. Plus, freeing up space to make the computer run more smoothly can never be a bad thing. So, better to go through the library beforehand.
Now what is your best approach? The best thing to do is to look for unwanted files:
Bad Files (corrupted files, bad audio quality files)
Files you don’t play or probably will never play
I will go through each of these subjects as I progress. I am looking forward to going through my collection, making changes where I can and marking the progress. I will bring up the challenges as they come up.
“January can be the cruelest month for working DJs” (- a wise poet) once you get passed that holiday party blitz of December, which often culminates into New Year’s Eve. But for those that have a little (more) down time it presents an opportunity to “do stuff”. To get things in order. To not only take spiritual stock but to also take physical stock. So, for me I decided to take on the arduous task of cleaning out my Mac (a 2.6 ghz, Intel Core i5), which I use for djing. The mac which I have been using in professional and a personal capacity is at its… capacity (funny enough). The hard drive (1TB) is maxed out more or less, with about 10 gb left, which is unadvisable. In Serato, you begin to see weird activity: visual dropouts and slowness, which is unacceptable. Performatively, it can be stifling.
So, I figured why not take full advantage and update the OS as well and wipe the drive, start “fresh”. I figured its the sure fire way of getting rid of anything unnecessary (why do I have 100 gigs of “other” files in system info). Besides, I have been interested in getting a dj controller for gigging. I have always been a turntable guy, but carrying turntables these days seems overkill. Often, when you show up, there isn’t even enough room for them. Also, people’s expectations have changed. I could go over the pros and cons (perhaps in future blog) but now I digress. So, I am hoping to get a dj controller, however, a lot of the newer generation controllers require at least 10.10 (Yosemite), notably the Roland DJ controller series. Laugh, yes I am on 10.9. but I have always been of the mind: why update unless its for specific software or hardware? For the emojis? Plus, in light of recent news regarding Apples phones, I wouldn’t put it past them regarding their computers. They said they don’t but they weren’t so forthcoming about their phones. Anyways, I figure 10.10 shouldn’t be totally debilitating to my 4/5 year old mac.
So, this is the plan: to edit my library & update the OS. The process is going to take quite a bit of time, but I expect it to be an enlightening experience. So, I am going to do some blog posts regarding this and the issues raised as they come up.